Precision Medicine Oriented Knowledge Graph

Developing personalized diagnostic strategies and targeted treatments requires a deep understanding of disease biology and the ability to dissect the relationship between molecular and genetic factors and their phenotypic consequences. However, such knowledge is fragmented across publications, non-standardized research repositories, and evolving ontologies describing various scales of biological organization between genotypes and clinical phenotypes.

We introduce PrimeKG, a precision medicine-oriented knowledge graph that provides a holistic view of diseases. PrimeKG integrates 20 high-quality resources to describe 17,080 diseases with 4,050,249 relationships representing ten major biological scales, including disease-associated protein perturbations, biological processes and pathways, anatomical and phenotypic scale, and the entire range of approved and experimental drugs with their therapeutic action, considerably expanding previous efforts in disease-rooted knowledge graphs.

PrimeKG supports drug-disease prediction by including an abundance of ’indications’, ’contradictions’ and ’off-label use’ edges, which are usually missing in other knowledge graphs. We accompany PrimeKG's graph structure with text descriptions of clinical guidelines for drugs and diseases to enable multi-modal analyses.

The figure below provides an overview of PrimeKG. Panel a shows a schematic overview of the various types of nodes in PrimeKG and the relationships they have with other nodes in the graph.

Panel b shows all disease nodes in PrimeKG visualized in a circular layout together with disease-associated information. Shown are relationships between disease nodes and any other node type. Disease nodes are densely connected to four other node types in PrimeKG through seven types of relations.

Panel c shows an example of paths in PrimeKG between the disease node ‘Autism’ and the drug node ‘Risperidone’. Intermediate nodes are colored by their node type from panel a. We also display snippets of text features for both nodes to demonstrate the multimodal nature of PrimeKG.

Abbreviations - MF: molecular function, BP: biological process, CC: cellular component, APZ: Apiprazole, EPI: epilepsy, ABP: abdominal pain, + / - associations: positive and negative associations.

Publication

Building a knowledge graph to enable precision medicine
Payal Chandak*, Kexin Huang*, and Marinka Zitnik
In Review 2022 [bioRxiv]

@article{chandak2022building,
  title={Building a knowledge graph to enable precision medicine},
  author={Chandak, Payal and Huang, Kexin and Zitnik, Marinka},
  journal={bioRxiv},
  doi={10.1101/2022.05.01.489928},
  url={https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2022/05/01/2022.05.01.489928},
  year={2022},
  publisher={Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory}
}

Code

The code to reproduce results, together with documentation and tutorials, is available in PrimeKG’s Github repository.

Data availability

PrimeKG is hosted on Harvard Dataverse. We deposited the knowledge graph along with all relevant intermediate files at this repository.

Authors

Latest News

Sep 2022:   New Paper in Nature Chemical Biology

Our paper on artificial intelligence foundation for therapeutic science is published in Nature Chemical Biology.

Sep 2022:   Self-Supervised Pre-Training at NeurIPS 2022

New paper on self-supervised contrastive pre-training accepted at NeurIPS 2022. Project page. Thankful for this collaboration with the Lincoln National Laboratory.

Sep 2022:   Best Paper Honorable Mention Award at IEEE VIS

Our paper on user-centric AI of drug repurposing received the Best Paper Honorable Mention Award at IEEE VIS 2022. Thankful for this collaboration with Gehlenborg Lab.

Sep 2022:   Multimodal Representation Learning with Graphs

Aug 2022:   On Graph AI for Precision Medicine

The recording of our tutorial on using graph AI to advance precision medicine is available. Tune into four hours of interactive lectures about state-of-the-art graph AI methods and applications in precision medicine.

Aug 2022:   Evaluating Explainability for GNNs

New preprint! We introduce a resource for broad evaluation of the quality and reliability of GNN explanations, addressing challenges and providing solutions for GNN explainability. Project website.

Jul 2022:   New Frontiers in Graph Learning at NeurIPS

Excited to organize the New Frontiers in Graph Learning workshop at NeurIPS.

Jul 2022:   AI4Science at NeurIPS

We are excited to host the AI4Science meeting at NeurIPS discussing AI-driven scientific discovery, implementation and verification of AI in science, the influence AI has on the conduct of science, and more.

Jul 2022:   Graph AI for Precision Medicine at ISMB

Jul 2022:   Welcoming Fellows and Summer Students

Welcoming a research fellow Julia Balla and three Summer students, Nicholas Ho, Satvik Tripathi, and Isuru Herath.

Jun 2022:   Broadly Generalizable Pre-Training Approach

Excited to share a preprint on self-supervised method for pre-training. Project website with evaluation on eight datasets, including electrodiagnostic testing, human daily activity recognition, and health state monitoring.

Jun 2022:   Welcoming New Postdocs

Excited to welcome George Dasoulas and Huan He, new postdocs joining us this Summer.

May 2022:   George Named the 2022 Wojcicki Troper Fellow

May 2022:   New preprint on PrimeKG

New preprint on building knowledge graphs to enable precision medicine applications.

May 2022:   Building KGs to Support Precision Medicine

Apr 2022:   Webster on the Cover of Cell Systems

Webster is on the cover of April issue of Cell Systems. Webster uses cell viability changes following gene perturbation to automatically learn cellular functions and pathways from data.

Apr 2022:   NASA Space Biology

Dr. Zitnik will serve on the Science Working Group at NASA Space Biology.

Mar 2022:   Yasha's Graduate Research Fellowship

Yasha won the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship. Congratulations!

Mar 2022:   AI4Science at ICML 2022

We are excited to be selected to organize the AI4Science meeting at ICML 2022. Stay tuned for details. http://www.ai4science.net/icml22

Mar 2022:   Graph Algorithms in Biomedicine at PSB 2023

Excited to be organizing a session on Graph Algorithms at PSB 2023. Stay tuned for details.

Zitnik Lab  ·  Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Science  ·  Harvard  ·  Department of Biomedical Informatics